Baby Mattress Covers, LLC

We're concerned about babies!

Researching the Cause of SIDS.

Researching the SIDS Literature has Proven Fruitful

Contrary to prevalent belief, SIDS can be prevented.

Mattress-wrapping has prevented SIDS successfully since 1996 [1]. In New Zealand there have been no SIDS deaths on a BabeSafe® properly wrapped mattress since its inception in 1996 [1].

Evidence is how to prove to the scientific and medical community, that the Richardson Hypothesis has validity. The Richardson Hypothesis [2–4] is the basis for the mattress-wrapping.

With the success of mattress-wrapping, the theory therefore must hold certain provable keys to the truth. We are reading the literature to see if the Richardson Hypothesis can provide any insight not particularly evident to the traditional researcher.


A few Items for those seeking SIDS prevention for their baby:

We are giving referrals to BabeSafe® mattress cover distributors by referring you to the BabeSafe manufacturer's How to Order page. Their website has the list of the active BabeSafe distributors. BabeSafe® mattress covers are available to the USA, shipped from the USA.

We receive no financial compensation for making referrals, just the satisfaction we are protecting babies from SIDS.

Our Mattress-Wrapping Details page shares about the mattress-wrapping method to prevent SIDS.


What we found true about SIDS:

The Factors lists below are important facts to know about SIDS. Factors to be avoided and others to be done to improve your baby’s chances against SIDS. Up to now there is not a well-accepted, scientifically proven cause of how SIDS is happening. But adapting your situation to these factors can greatly improve your baby’s chances.

This sounds like double talk doesn’t it. First SIDS can be prevented and then there is not a scientifically proven method to prevent SIDS. In practice, SIDS has been prevented with the mattress-wrapping method. There was only initial research on the Hypothesis done in the 1990’s. But there have never been any generally accepted peer-review studies done, showing the cause of SIDS.

We are Researching the Cause of SIDS.

It is our goal to have a cause-of-SIDS manuscript accepted through the peer-review process, with multiple rationale and a postulate for an evidence-based study to support the cause. In the past there was only one round of academic point/counterpoint between mattress-wrapping researchers [2,3] and the medical community researchers [5]. This manuscript presents a different aspect to consider, yet still in light of the Richardson Hypothesis.

In the meantime, we recommend parents and grandparents take into consideration the following SIDS research-based risk factors AND practice mattress-wrapping, both shown to work against SIDS. Print them out from the sidebar printer-icon and check off those risk factors that apply to you. (Odds Ratio = OR)

Factors increasing SIDS Risk:

( _ ) The period of highest risk of SIDS is 2 to 4 months of age, with 90% of SIDS cases occurring before 6 months of age [6]

( _ ) Sleeping a baby on a sofa, couch or recliner is extremely hazardous [7] and has the greatest SIDS risk (OR to 66.9) [6]. One sixth of SIDS deaths occur in these situations [8]

( _ ) The top two behavioral predictors (SIDS/control) are #1 “difficulty in awakening the baby” (OR 18.00) and #2 “few movements during sleep” (OR 16.00) [9]

( _ ) Face-down, prone sleeping of the baby [10–12] is greater risk than supine sleeping

( _ ) Babies of African American [13,14] and Native-American [15] families are affected more than other races in the USA

( _ ) Affects male babies more frequently than female [16,17]

( _ ) Antenatal and postnatal smoking [18,19] are a risk, also during time frames when bedsharing is done [11,20–22]

( _ ) Bedsharing with an exhausted or drug/alcohol impaired adult, [22] with siblings/other adult, [7,11] or with parent(s) [7,8,23,24] are all SIDS risks

( _ ) Sleeping a baby in another room is greater SIDS risk than “room sharing” with the parent [11,12,23,25]

( _ ) Sleeping on a soft sleep surface is a greater risk than on a firm mattress [7,11]

( _ ) Soft bedding has been shown a SIDS risk as CO2 is trapped during rebreathing [15,26–28]

( _ ) Pillows, cushions and blankets [25,29] are a SIDS risk

( _ ) Overheating is a risk of SIDS [16,23,30] SIDS risk increases with increased domicile altitude [31]

Factors reducing SIDS Risk:

( _ ) Immunizations are protective against SIDS [15,22], over the long run [32]

( _ ) Placing a pacifier (dummy) in a baby’s mouth when putting them to sleep reduces SIDS risk [12,30]

( _ ) Breastfeeding is protective [15,22,23]


What then is the Toxic Gas Theory of SIDS / Richardson Hypothesis?

It means that SIDS can likely occur if all three of these exist together:

1. The elements phosphorous (P), arsenic (As), and/or antimony (Sb) are present in the baby’s sleeping environment;

2. The common household fungus is present; and

3. Then there is an increase in temperature, from body heat or from other heat sources.

These three simultaneous conditions cause the fungus to grow, metabolizing compounds containing the elements, to create nerve gases, that stop the baby's respiratory and cardiac function, to make SIDS occur.

Especially important for prevention is keeping the chemical elements P, As, and Sb – in mattresses and bedding – away from your baby and minimizing sources of body heat.

Sleep your baby in a wrapped: bassinet, co-sleeper, Pack ‘N Play (or other playpen) or crib. Never sleep your baby on a sofa, couch or recliner (up to 66.9x the risk) [6].

The standard SIDS precautions in the list above are still valid and apply to reducing SIDS. You must sleep your baby Alone, on their Back, and in a Crib, in a sleeping situation designed specifically for babies. But it also should be wrapped with a BabeSafe® mattress cover. Use a firm mattress and no soft bedding.

The Richardson Hypothesis can be laid over the traditional research findings on SIDS, that have been discovered over the years, to realize that the Triple-Risk Model of SIDS [33] has validity even with toxic gases as part of the cause of SIDS.

The key to mattress-wrapping is to use a BabeSafe® mattress cover over your baby’s mattress and only 100% pure cotton bedding, with no padding or quilting.


About Us

Barb Knoll, CNM ret.


I am a Certified Nurse Midwife with 43 years in Nursing of which 24 have been in Midwifery. Having delivered over 1,800 babies, I know the desire of every parent to protect their infants. Those who know what SIDS is (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome — also known as Cot Death in New Zealand) it leaves much fear in their hearts as they put their babies down to sleep.

Many mothers have told me their loss of sleep during the first few months after delivery was more due to their frequent checking to see if the baby was still breathing, rather than the baby crying and waking them up. I am convinced that mattress-wrapping with the BabeSafe® mattress covers protects babies from SIDS.

In the course of my practice I have seen the sad deaths of babies who were sleeping on unwrapped mattresses; yet in New Zealand there have been no reported SIDS deaths among the more than 245,000+ babies who have slept on mattresses wrapped with BabeSafe® mattress covers and using the specified bedding for a wrapped mattress, 100% cotton with no padding.

I became a BabeSafe distributor in December of 2002 after the son of one of our L&D nurses died of SIDS. Patrick was 6½ months old. He was in daycare when it happened, and it devastated everyone involved. I found an article about the work of Dr. Sprott in New Zealand shortly after this happened and the rest is history. The effectiveness of the covers impressed me. A photo of Patrick is on our Donations page and sketched in our logo.

In 2004 we started online with Baby Mattress Covers. In 2008 we incorporated into Baby Mattress Covers, LLC.  From November 2018 to February 2019 we took a Sabbatical from selling the covers.  It was then that we decided to do USA research on the mattress-wrapping method.  We no longer have any financial relationship to the sale of BabeSafe® mattress covers. We can still refer you to where you can get a cover.


Paul R. Knoll, MS


One thing that you need to know about my husband Paul is that he is extremely dedicated to whatever he commits himself to.

He graduated from Hope College in Holland, MI with a double major in German and Chemistry. He held different jobs for a while but settled in at an analytical food testing laboratory for 7 years. Because he wanted to improve himself in the field of Chemistry, he went to graduate school at the age of 48 and earned his Masters in Chemistry. His focus areas were Organic Chemistry, Toxicology and Analytical Chemistry, at Western Michigan University. He wrote his thesis on DNA mutations, smoking and bladder cancer. He belongs to the Honor Society of Phi Kappa Phi.

Paul took over our infant BabeSafe® mattress cover business as Volunteer Manager in January 2013. Up until then he was helping me with the website and keeping things straight. We stopped sales of BabeSafe® covers on November 1st, 2018.

I look forward to how Paul will continue supporting mattress-wrapping through this website and with SIDS prevention research by the cooperation with other SIDS researchers.


References: Partial List

1. Sprott A, TJ-Sprott-Ltd. Results of the New Zealand Mattress-Wrapping Programme for Crib-Death (SIDS) Prevention. BabeSafe; 2017.

2. Richardson BA. Cot mattress biodeterioration and SIDS. Lancet. 1990;335(8690):670. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(90)90463-F

3. Richardson B. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: a possible primary cause. J Forensic Sci Soc. 1994;34(3):199-204. doi:10.1016/S0015-7368(94)72915-7

4. Richardson BA. Cot mattresses and the sudden infant death syndrome. BMJ. 1995;310(6986):1071. doi:10.1136/bmj.310.6986.1071b

5. Warnock DW, Delves HT, Campell CK, et al. Toxic gas generation from plastic mattresses and sudden infant death syndrome. Lancet. 1995;346(8989):1516-1520. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(95)92051-X

6. Carlin RF, Moon RY. Risk factors, protective factors, and current recommendations to reduce sudden infant death syndrome a review. JAMA Pediatr. 2017;171(2):175-180. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.3345

For Full Reference List scroll to bottom of Mattress Wrapping Details page.


Office Location | Hours

Operated by: Baby Mattress Covers, LLC

Office Location:

614 Lynn Drive, Berrien Springs, Michigan 49103-1027 USA

Hours: EDT (UTC -4:00)

Mon, Tues, Thurs:

9:30 am to 8:00 pm

Wed: 9:30 am to 1:00 pm

Fri: 9:30 am to 5:00 pm

Sat: 10:00 am to 1:00 pm

Sunday: Closed